NFPA 59A是美国LNG终端设计、施工、储运领域主要的防火安全标准，在国际上得到高度认可并被广泛使用。我国已将NFPA 59A等同转化为推荐性国家标准，但在使用中出现了其应用结果与我国LNG强制性标准规定不一致、不被认可以及其指导作用不充分等困惑。因此，从追溯NFPA 59A的制定依据、引用标准以及它们的关系入手，研究了美国LNG项目设计、施工、运行的安全标准体系及其作用途径，以期为中国建立科学、有效的LNG项目安全标准体系提供借鉴。研究表明，美国通过法律、法规、标准3个层次分别对与LNG相关的各类管理、经营、技术人员的工作行为和工作程序分类进行了严格规范，组成统一、科学、完整的安全保障规范体系，对NFPA 59A形成有力支撑。一方面，美国通过法规49CFR193的引用赋予自愿性标准NFPA 59A具有强制执行效力；另一方面，NFPA 59A通过引用大量通用技术标准和科学计算方法来丰富其内容，为LNG项目安全提供较全面的保障；因此单独、直接转化NFPA 59A为推荐性标准会削弱和缩小其原有的作用。
关键词： LNG 设计 施工 安全 法律 法规 标准 美国
Learning from U.S. safety regulations for design and construction of LNG projects
Wang Jinmin, Huangpu Lixia, Guo Kaihua
1.School of Engineering, Sun YatSen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China; 2.Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510225, China
The US NFPA 59A is the main fireproofing safety regulations for LNG terminal design, construction, and storage, which has gained high recognition and been widely applied in the world. Although it is recommended as foundation for Chinese comparative national standards, there are many disturbing problems in their actual uses like unconformity with Chinese compulsory LNG standards, even difficulty to understand and recognize it. Therefore, this paper first reviews the basis, reference to standard, and their relationships in the NFPA 59A, then discusses the whole system of safety regulations for LNG project design, construction, and operation and their function ways. The above discussion shows that classified operation and management, working procedures and behaviors of technical staff, all involved in LNG projects, are strictly enacted by U.S. laws, regulations, and standards in three levels which are combined into a unified, scientific and complete safety regulation guarantee system. This provides robust support for the application of NFPA 59A. Therefore, US government has endowed NFPA 59A to enforce its authority by quoting 49CFR193 regulation, and meanwhile, NFPA 59A has been enriched comprehensively by quoting a number of technical standards and calculation methods and provided rather allsided safety guarantee for LNG projects. This welldeveloped LNG regulation system can be used as a great reference for the establishment and improvement of the LNG safety regulation and standard system in China. However, the intrinsic function of NFPA 59A may be considerably reduced by being copied mechanically in disregard of specific conditions.